1. Briefly explain the current approach to therapy.

2. Discuss the aims and methods of psychoanalysis and explain the critics’ concerns with this form of therapy.

3. Identify the basic themes of humanistic therapies.

4. Describe Rogers’s client-centered approach (also called person‑centered).

5. Identify the basic assumptions of behavior therapy and discuss the classical conditioning therapies.

6. Describe the premise behind operant conditioning techniques and explain the critics’ concerns with these techniques.

7. Identify the basic assumptions of the cognitive therapies.

8. Describe group therapy.

9. Discuss the findings regarding the effectiveness of the psychotherapies.

10. Identify two reasons clients’ and therapists’ effectiveness may be inflated.

11. Discuss the relative effectiveness of different psychotherapies.

12. Evaluate the effectiveness of three popular alternative therapies.

13. Discuss the commonalities among the psychotherapies.

14. Discuss the role of culture and values in psychotherapy.

15. Explain the rationale and goals of preventive mental health programs.

16. Identify the common forms of drug therapy.

17. Describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of psychological disorders.

18. Describe the use of psychosurgery in the treatment of psychological disorders.



1. psychotherapy

2. eclectic approach—

3. psychoanalysis

4. resistance

5. interpretation

6. transference

7. client‑centered therapy—

8. active listening—

9. behavior therapy—

10. counterconditioning

11. exposure therapies—

12. systematic desensitization—

13. aversive conditioning—

14. token economy—

15. cognitive therapy—

16. cognitive-behavior therapy—

17. family therapy—

18. regression toward the mean—

19. meta‑analysis

20. psychopharmacology

21. lithium

22. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)—

23. psychosurgery

24. lobotomy


Chapter Review:

1. Psychological therapy is more commonly called ____________________.

2. Therapists who blend several psychotherapy techniques are said to take an ____________________ approach.

3. The major psychotherapies are based on four per­spectives: the ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________ perspectives.

4. Freud’s technique in which a client says whatever comes to mind is called _______________ _______________.

5. When, in the course of therapy, a person omits shameful or embarrassing material, ____________________ is occurring. Insight is facilitated by the analyst’s ____________________ of the meaning of such omissions, of dreams, and of other information revealed during therapy sessions.

6. Freud referred to the hidden meaning of a dream as its _______________ _______________.

7. When strong feelings, similar to those experi­enced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist, ____________________ has occurred.

8. Therapists who are influenced by Freud’s psychoanalysis but who talk to the patient face to face are ____________________ therapists. In addition, they work with patients only ____________________ (how long?) and for only a few weeks or months.

9. A brief alternative to psychodynamic therapy that has proven effective with ____________________ patients is ____________________ ____________________. While this approach aims to help people gain ____________________ into their difficulties, it focuses on ____________________ ____________________ rather than on past hurts.

10. Humanistic therapies attempt to help people meet their potential for ____________________.

11. List several ways that humanistic therapy differs from psychoanalysis.





12. The humanistic therapy based on Rogers’s theory is called _______________ - _______________, which is described as ____________________ therapy because the therapist _____ (interprets / does not interpret) the person’s problems.

13. In order to promote growth in clients, Rogerian therapists exhibit ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

14. Rogers’s technique of restating and clarifying what a person is saying is called ____________________ ____________________. Given a nonjudgmental environment that provides ____________________ ____________________ ____________________, patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole.

15. Three tips for listening more actively in your own relationships are ____________________, ____________________ ____________________, and ____________________ ____________________.

16. Contrast the assumptions of the behavior therapies with those of psychoanalysis and humanistic therapy.


17. One cluster of behavior therapies is based on the principles of ____________________ ____________________, as developed in Pavlov’s experiments. This technique, in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one, is called ____________________.  Two examples of this technique are ____________________ ____________________ and ____________________ ____________________.

18. The most widely used techniques of behavior therapy are the ____________________ ____________________. The technique of systematic desensitization has been most fully developed by the therapist ____________________. The assumption behind this technique is that one cannot simultaneously be ____________________ and relaxed.

19. The first step in systematic desensitization is the construction of a ____________________ of anxi­ety‑arousing stimuli. The second step involves training in _______________ ______________. In the final step, the person is trained to associate the ____________________ state with the ____________________‑arousing stimuli.

20. For those who are unable to ____________________ an anxiety-arousing situation, or too afraid or embarrassed to do so, ____________________  ____________________  ____________________  therapy offers a promising alternative.

21. In helping people to overcome fears of snakes and spiders, for example, therapists sometimes combine systematic desensitization with ____________________ ____________________.

22. In aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a ____________________ (positive / negative) response for one that is currently ____________________ (positive / negative). In this technique, a person’s unwanted behaviors become associated with ____________________ feelings.

23. Therapies that influence behavior by controlling its consequences are based on principles of ____________________ conditioning. One appli­cation of this form of therapy to institutional settings is the ____________________ ____________________, in which desired behaviors are rewarded.

24. State two criticisms of “behavior modification.”





25. Therapists who teach people new, more construc­tive ways of thinking are using ____________________ therapy.

26. One variety of cognitive therapy that attempts to reverse the ____________________ beliefs often associated with ____________________ by helping clients see their irrationalities. This therapy was developed by ____________________.

27. A form of cognitive therapy developed by Adele Rabin builds on the finding that depressed people _______________ (do / do not) exhibit the self-serving bias.

28. Treatment that combines an attack on negative thinking with efforts to modify behavior is know as ____________________-____________________ therapy.

29. Training people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations is the goal of ____________________ ____________________ training. Students trained to ____________________ their negative thoughts are less likely to experience future depression.

30. List several advantages of group therapy.





31. The most common types of group therapy are ____________________  and ____________________  groups for alcoholics, divorced people, and gamblers, for example. Most support groups focus on ____________________, ____________________, and _______________-_______________-_______________ illness.

32. The type of group interaction that focuses on the social context in which the individual exists is ____________________  ____________________.

33. In this type of group, therapists focus on improving ____________________ within the family and helping family members to discover new ways of preventing or resolving ____________________.

34. In contrast to earlier times, most therapy today __________ (is / is not) provided by psychiatrists.

35. A majority of psychotherapy clients express ____________________ (satisfaction / dissatisfaction) with their therapy.

36. A long‑term study of 500 Massachusetts boys found that those who received intensive counseling ____________________ (had / did not have) significantly fewer problems than a control group. Research has also shown that “Scared Straight” programs ____________________ (are / are not) effective in reducing criminal offenses committed by delinquent boys.

37. Clients’ and therapists’ perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness may be inflated by their ____________________ that a treatment works. This phenomenon is called the ____________________ ____________________. Another phenomenon that may inflate their perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness is the phenomenon called ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________, which is the tendency for ____________________ emotions to return toward their ____________________ state.

38. The debate over the effectiveness of psychothera­py began with a study by ____________________; it showed that the rate of improvement for those who received therapy _______________ (was / was not) higher than the rate for those who did not.

39. A statistical technique that makes it possible to combine the results of many different psychother­apy outcome studies is called _______________- _______________. Overall, the results of such analyses indicate that psychotherapy is ____________________ (some­what effective / ineffective) .

40. As a rule, psychotherapy is most effective with problems that are ____________________ (specific / nonspecific).

41. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different forms of therapy reveal ____________________ (clear / no clear) differences, that the type of therapy provider _________________________ (matters / does not matter), and that whether therapy is provided by an individual therapist or within a group ____________________________ (makes a difference / does not make a difference).

42. Controlled treatment studies have demonstrated that depression may be effectively treated with ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________ therapies. In treating anxiety, ____________________ and ____________________ therapies and ____________________ ____________________ training have proven effective in treating ____________________, and behavior modification in treating ____________________ ____________________.

43. With phobias, compulsions, and other specific behavior problems, ____________________ ther­apies have been the most effective.

44. Today, many forms of ____________________ ____________________ are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints. Among the most popular is ____________________ ____________________, in which practitioners move their hands over a patient’s body. Empirical support for this form of therapy is ____________________ (strong / nonexistent).

45. In another popular alternative therapy, a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine ____________________ ____________________. This therapy, called ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ has proven ____________________ (completely ineffective / somewhat effective) as a treatment for nonmilitary ____________________-____________________ ____________________ ____________________. However, skeptics point to evidence that ____________________ ____________________ is just as effective as triggered eye movements in producing beneficial results.

46. For people who suffer from the winter-time form of depression called ____________________ ____________________ ____________________, timed ____________________-____________________ therapy may be beneficial in shifting secretion of the hormone ____________________.

47. Several studies found that treatment for mild problems offered by paraprofessionals _______________ (is / is not) as effective as that offered by professional therapists.

48. Generally speaking, psychotherapists’ personal values _______________ (do / do not) influ­ence their therapy.

49. The most widely used biomedical treatments are the ____________________ therapies. Thanks to these therapies, the number of residents in mental hospitals has ____________________ (increased / decreased) sharply.

50. The field that studies the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior is ____________________.

51. When neither the patients nor the staff are aware of which condition a given individual is in, a ____________________ - ____________________ study is being conducted.

52. One effect of ____________________ drugs, such as ____________________, is to help those experiencing ____________________ (positive / nega­tive) symptoms of schizophrenia by decreasing their responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli; schizo­phrenia patients who are apathetic and with­ drawn may be more effectively treated with the drug ____________________. These drugs work by blocking the receptor sites for the neurotrans­mitters ____________________ and ____________________.

53. Xanax and Valium are classified as ____________________ drugs. These drugs depress activity in the ____________________ ____________________ ____________________.

54. Drugs that are prescribed to alleviate depression are called ____________________ drugs. These drugs work by increasing levels of the neuro­transmitters ____________________ and ____________________. One example of this type of drug is ____________________, which works by blocking the reabsorption of ____________________ from synapses and is therefore called a ____________________-____________________-____________________ drug.

55. Equally effective in calming anxious people and energizing depressed people is ____________________ ____________________, which has positive side effects.

56. Although people with depression often improve after one month on antidepressants, meta-analysis studies demonstrate that a large percentage of the effectiveness is due to a ____________________ ____________________.

57. Current drug therapies work by affecting activity at all the ____________________ for a given neurotransmitter. One type of drug currently under development aims to block only those for a brain chemical called ____________________, which helps transmit ____________________ messages.

58. In order to stabilize the mood swings of a bipolar disorder, the drug ____________________ often prescribed.

59. The therapeutic technique in which the patient receives an electric shock to the brain is referred to as ____________________ therapy, abbreviat­ed as _______________.

60. ECT is most often used with patients suffering from severe ____________________. Research evidence ____________________ (confirms / does not confirm) ECT’s effectiveness with such patients.

61. One theory of how ECT works suggests that it increases release of the neurotransmitter ____________________.

62. A new, gentler procedure called ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ aims to treat depression by presenting pulses through a magnetic coil held close to a person’s skul above the right eyebrowl. Unlike ECT, this procedure produces no ____________________, ____________________ ,loss or other side effects. This procedure may work by energizing the brain’s left _______________ ________________ which is relatively inactive in depressed patients.


63. The biomedical therapy in which a portion of brain tissue is removed or destroyed is called ____________________.

64. In the 1930s, Moniz developed an operation called the ____________________. In this procedure, the ____________________ lobe of the brain is disconnected from the rest of the brain.

65. Today, most psychosurgery has been replaced by the use of ____________________ or some other form of treatment.

66. Explain the rationale and goals of preventive mental health programs.